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Pertussis Or Whooping Cough

Whooping cough a.k.a(also known as) Pertussis is a highly contagious disease. Whooping cough is one of the leading causes of vaccine-preventable deaths. There are 30 to 50 million cases of Pertussis per year. Of these millions of cases there is about three hundred thousand deaths each year. Basically all of these deaths occur in children under twelve months of age. Another quick statistic is that of these 30 to 50 million cases, 90% occor in developing countries.

The disease was easily and widely recognized in as early as 1578. It was later isolated in pure culture in 1906 by Octave Gengou and Jules Bordet. The complete Pertussis genome of 4,086,186 base pairs was sequenced in 2002. Inititially the Whooping Cough is characterized by mild respiratory infection symptoms. These symptoms include a cough, sneezing, and runny nose.

This initial stage lasts for about one to two weeks. After this first two week period the cough changes character, with paroxysms of coughing followed by a “whooping” sound. Often times these coughing fits are followed by vomiting. This constant coughing and vomitting in several cases leads to malnutrition. Coughing fits gradually go away over the first one to two months. Other complications of the disease include pneumonia, encephalitis, pulmonary hypertension, and secondary bacterial superinfection.

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Whooping Cough is spread by contact with an airborne discharge from the mucous membranes of an infected person. The disease is treated with antibiotics like erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin. These antibiotics result in the person becoming less infectious but in the majority of cases does not change the outcome of the disease.

Immunizations for whooping cough are often combined and given with tetanus and diphtheria immunizations. These immunizations are given to infants at ages 2, 4, and 6 months, and later at 15 to 18 months and 4 to 6 years. Many cases of Whooping cough in adults will go unnoticed and diagnosed due to the fact that it is much less severe.

New Insight Transformation Of Migraines Causes Fibromyalgia

Migraines are thought of as normal neurological functions interspersed with episodes of headaches. At least 20% of migraineurs meeting the International Headache Society criteria have changed the pattern from episodes of migraine into patterns of chronic headache. Chronic headache often does not return to normal neurological function. This evolving process from episodic headache to chronic headache is called transformation. In the population segment of chronic daily headache, migraine appears to be a progressive neurological disease. The decline of normal neurological function between episodes of migraine greatly exacerbates the migraine syndrome.

Transformation is a process that occurs usually over years. Usually the migraineur starts off having acute episodic migraines. As someone continues to have migraines over time, the pain can occur more often and start merging together with a mixed headache pattern of lower severity migraines intermingled with more severe episodes. The mixed headache pattern can further transform into chronic daily headache. These transformed headaches can be caused by rebound phenomenon or can happen by reasons that are not fully understood at the present time.

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A threshold can refer to a horizontal piece of building material beneath a doorway or window, but the meaning is different in medical jargon. Threshold refers to the point at which stimulus or stimuli are of sufficient intensity to produce an effect. The threshold for migraines can be lowered (migraines may happen more easily) by having repeated migraines. Facilitation or kindling describe this phenomenon. Migraines make the sensitive body more sensitive. In other words, migraines breed migraines.

The lower threshold for migraines is made easier as though kindling were put on a fire. Uncontrolled migraines not only cause more migraines but eventually cause transformed migraines. A severe stimulus, injury, illness, or stress can provoke the nervous system to generate uncontrolled migraines. The migraine pain changes over time. This change is called transformation.

You can imagine one of your kid’s transformers changing from a robot to a plane or car, but can you imagine your migraines changing from a more classic presentation to chronic neck pain, sinus pain, or constant headache. Well believe it or not, over time migraines do transform. Usually a decade or more is necessary for transformation of episodic to chronic migraine. One of the sincere goals of my new book, Doctor, Why Do I Feel This Way?, is to prevent transformation in migraineurs who have not reached this stage.

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